8. Julie Thompson Klein, ‘Disciplinary Origins and Differences’, http://www.science.org.au/events/fenner/klein.htm (last accessed 30 July 2007]). Klein herself is referring to Burton R. Clark, Places of Inquiry: Research and Advanced Education in Modern Universities (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), p. 193.
9. I discuss these other venues for reenactment in greater detail in Katie King, ‘Historiography as Reenactment: Metaphors and Literalizations of TV Documentaries’, Criticism 46:3 (2004), 459-75, and in my forthcoming Networked Reenactments. Scholarly publications and talks on reenactment are still largely centred upon heritage issues and venues. Their engagements with affect have more to do with memory and history than with technology, cognition and sensation, or with the infrastructural work of re-enaction. This issue of Criticism and a series of conferences that precede and postdate it, offer one important bibliography for this important dominant strain of analysis. I participated in one of these conferences: ‘Extreme and Sentimental History: A Conference on the Re-Enactment of Historical Events’ (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 2-3 April, 2004). Another, more recent one was: ‘Art and Re-Enactment Conference Related to the HRC Theme: Historical Re-Enactment and Public Memory’ (Australian National University, Canberra, 5-7 June, 2007).
11. Another currently vibrant example of a possible writing technology that includes but does not stop with inscription is that of the Inka khipu, the subject of fascinating dispute in Andean scholarship where its ‘writing’ can be conceptualized in alternate registers: in the first as possibly a record of literatures that require decompiling from binary code, and in the second, as a device for setting up simulations and recording their outcomes. See Gary Urton, Signs of the Inka Khipu: Binary Coding in the Andean Knotted-String Records (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003); Frank Salomon, The Cord Keepers: Khipus and Cultural Life in a Peruvian Village (Durham: Duke University Press, 2004). And Katie King, ‘In Knots: Emergent Knowledge Systems and the Inka Khipu’, paper presented at the panel on ‘Narrative and Emergent Knowledge’ at the Annual Meetings of the Society for Literature, Science and the Arts: Emergent Systems, Cognitive Environments (Chicago, 11 November 2005),
12. Katie King, ‘Globalization, TV Technologies, and the Re-Production of Sexual Identities: Researching and Teaching Layers of Locals and Globals in Highlander and Xena’, in Encompassing Gender: Integrating International Studies and Women's Studies, ed. Mary M. Lay, Janice J. Monk, and Deborah Silverton Rosenfelt (New York: The Feminist Press, 2002), pp. 101-21. See also Tiziana Terranova, ‘Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy’, Social Text 63, 18:2 (2000), 33-58. Two foundational works in a now vast literature on television generally, and TV folk media in particular, are Camille Bacon-Smith, Enterprising Women: Television Fandom and the Creation of Popular Myth (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992); and Henry Jenkins, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture (New York: Routledge, 1992).
13. Some representative examples from these prolific authors: Harold Adams Innis and Mary Quayle Innis, Empire and Communications (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1972); Eric Alfred Havelock, Preface to Plato (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1963); Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1962); Walter J. Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (New York: Methuen, 1982); Brian Stock, Listening for the Text: On the Uses of the Past (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).
14. See for example David E. Bynum and the President and Fellows of Harvard College, Four Generations of Oral Literary Studies at Harvard University, Child's Legacy Enlarged: Oral Literary Studies at Harvard since 1856; Albert Bates Lord, Stephen A. Mitchell, and Gregory Nagy, The Singer of Tales (Cambridge, Mass.: University of Harvard Press, 2000), book with CD-ROM; John Miles Foley, ed., Teaching Oral Traditions (New York: Modern Language Association, 1998); John Miles Foley and Milman Parry, eds., Comparative Research on Oral Traditions: A Memorial for Milman Parry (Columbus: Slavica, 1987).
15. Benedict R. Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983) and Benedict Anderson, Language and Power: Exploring Political Cultures in Indonesia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990). A more detailed discussion of this whole apparatus and its layered and assembled histories is in my forthcoming book, Speaking with Things.
16. Katie King, ‘Demonstrations and Experiments With ”Epistemological Decorum”: Seventeenth Century Quakers Practicing Writing Technologies and the Scientific Revolution’ (paper presented at the ‘Imaging Nature: Technologies of the Literal and the Scientific Revolution’ Colloquium, at The Folger Shakespeare Library, 27 February, 2004), http://www.womensstudies.umd.edu/wmstfac/kking/present/Folger04.html (accessed 3 June 2008).
See Steven Shapin, A Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994); Elizabeth Potter, Gender and Boyle's Law of Gases (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001); Michael Hunter, ‘General Introduction’, in The Works of Robert Boyle, ed. Michael Hunter and Edward B. Davis (London & Brookfield: Pickering & Chatto, 1999); Paula McDowell, ‘Tace Sowle, Quaker Publisher’ in The British Literary Book Trade, 1475-1700, ed. James K. Bracken and Joel Silver (Detroit: Gale Research, 1996), pp. 249-257.
17. I am indebted to: many interactions with Donna Haraway, especially her work in Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium.Femaleman©_Meets_Oncomouse™: Feminism and Technoscience (New York: Routledge, 1997); all the work of Susan Leigh Star, including ‘The Ethnography of Infrastructure’, American Behavioral Scientist 43:3 (1999), 377-92; all the work of Sharon Traweek, with special attention to ‘Faultlines’, in Doing Science + Culture, ed. Sharon Traweek and Roddey Reid (New York: Routledge, 2000), pp. 210-48; and the work of numerous others in feminist technoscience studies.
18. See especially Richard Bauman, Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence among Seventeenth-Century Quakers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983); and Leo Damrosch, The Sorrows of the Quaker Jesus: James Nayler and the Puritan Crackdown on the Free Spirit (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996). See also Adrian Johns, The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998) and Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985). What this essay might have also argued in a longer form is that the histories of print culture and science that we see in books like Shapin's Social History of Truth, or Johns' The Nature of the Book, suggest that just such activity among knowledge worlds as that examined here occurred in seventeenth-century England, among different and similar forms pre-dating our notions of author and audience. That the ‘virtual witnessing’ of Shapin and Schaffer's Leviathan and the Air-pump is very like the reenactment-heavy science-styled television documentary form analyzed here. This association might be already and especially available even in this current essay form to those of a particular knowledge world familiar with these works, this time period and such arguments. But rather than restrict this essay only to those audiences, it works very hard to open up audiences – to give them enough to work with in common at the scale of the essay itself – to associate and connect them through forms of transdisciplinary inclusion, rather than exclude through ‘authoritative’ practice produced through membership (or ‘audience’) restriction.
19.King, ‘Historiography as Reenactment: Metaphors and Literalizations of TV Documentaries.’ For some of the theoretical context taken up in this essay, see Bruno Latour, We Have Never Been Modern, trans. Catherine Porter (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993).